Painful urination is a very unpleasant, but widespread problem. In the vast majority of cases, problems with the process of emptying the bladder occur in women, this is due to the anatomical features of the structure of their body. The length of the female urethra is several times shorter than that of the male, so infections and pathogenic bacteria penetrate the urogenital system much faster and easier.
Despite the fact that nature itself "took care" of the safety of the male body, representatives of the stronger sex may suffer from pain during urination.
In medicine, there is such a thing as dysuria - a term denoting a disorder with urination. This includes all sorts of unpleasant symptoms, including pain when emptying the bladder. You need to understand that any discomfort is a signal of the body in danger. Let's try to figure out what our body signals at the moment when dysuria occurs.
More about the causes of the unpleasant phenomenon.
All causes of urinary problems can be divided into two groups - infectious and non-infectious. In the first case we are talking about pathogenic microflora, which penetrates through the urethra into the urogenital system.
Often, with infections, an increased body temperature, chills, fever, and deterioration of general well-being are added to the symptoms described above. In some cases, the problem develops very quickly, and sometimes - the strength of symptoms is increased gradually.
Along with the manifestation of alarming symptoms, there is also a general deterioration of health. Anxiety, nervousness, headaches, weakness, apathy, loss of appetite, indisposition can manifest.
The number of non-infectious causes of pathology should include bladder tumors, kidney stones, inflammatory processes within the abdominal cavity, a sharp decline in immunity, and the like. In women, discomfort can be triggered by mechanical stimuli, for example, too active sex or an examination by a gynecologist.
In addition, discomfort is caused by an allergic reaction of the body. Synthetic underwear, gaskets and intimate napkins with fragrances, some types of condoms, inappropriate spermicidal gels and lubricants can act as an irritant. In this case, the pain during urination disappears immediately after the stimulus is removed.
Discomfort during emptying the bladder is also an indirect sign of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract or pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. In this case, adjacent organs exert pressure on the hollow organ, which leads to pain.
Symptoms of painful urination
The main signs of painful urination:
- pain and discomfort directly during or immediately after the process of emptying the bladder;
- aching pain in the abdomen, periodically increasing;
- the spread of pain in the pubic area on the lumbar region, groin, abdomen (sometimes aching pain in the legs);
- sharp pain in the urethra;
- discoloration of urine (it becomes turbid, unnatural color, with impurities of mucus or blood);
- urine has a sharp unpleasant odor;
- sexually active patients experience discomfort during the act of love.
Pain during urination is deployed in the pubic region, extending to the suprapubic zone. Unpleasant sensations may increase due to a burning sensation in the urethra. Let us try to identify and systematize the symptoms, the manifestation of which is the reason to listen more carefully to your body and visit a doctor. These symptoms can be attributed to the number of signs of many ailments. Most often we are talking about cystitis, urolithiasis, infections, fungi, and even inflammation of the appendix.
Painful urination in women
Susceptibility to various diseases of the urogenital system is justified by the anatomical features of the female body. The short urethra is an easily surmountable obstacle for germs and bacteria. Most often, various problems are provoked by elementary violations of the rules of personal hygiene.
The attack of pathogenic microflora can cause cystalgia - a disease that leads to impaired blood and lymph flow in the pelvic organs.
In this case, involuntary urination during sharp movements or laughter, sneezing is added to the painful urination. Additional symptoms of pathology - pain during intercourse, copious discharge from the urethra, sometimes with blood.
Difficult bladder emptying also indicates kidney problems. For example, with urolithiasis or pyelonephritis, there is difficulty urinating, accompanied by acute pain and pain. Such symptoms cannot be categorically ignored, since without proper therapy the disease will only develop.
The pain when going to the toilet "small" happens when vaginitis is an acute inflammatory process in the vagina. The disease can occur against the background of a sharp decline in local immunity, with mechanical damage to the mucous membrane, followed by infection, as a result of hormonal failure. Most often, vaginitis is diagnosed in pregnant women or in women who have reached menopause. Other symptoms of the ailments are heavy discharge from the vagina with admixture of pus, swelling of the external and internal genital organs, severe pain and fever.
Polyps and tumors inside the urethra can also provoke discomfort. At first, just discomfort or a slight burning sensation manifests itself, later - discharge with droplets of pus and blood. The latter already indicates the advanced stage of the disease. Pain during urination in women occurs for various reasons, but it is important to respond promptly to an alarming symptom.
Painful urination during pregnancy
Soreness when urinating and frequent urging to the toilet can be explained by an increase in the uterus, which is beginning to put more and more pressure on the hollow organ. But do not be too frivolous to treat unpleasant symptoms, writing off them for pregnancy. Signs that are the reason for an extraordinary visit to the doctor:
- change of pressure and jet volume;
- sharp pain when going to the toilet;
- changes in the color and smell of urine;
- the appearance of purulent or bloody inclusions;
Such phenomena occur with infections of the urogenital system, tumors and stone formations. During pregnancy, the immunity of the pelvic organs may decrease due to hormonal changes in the body, so the expectant mother should be especially attentive to her health.
Male painful urination
Symptoms of the same diseases in men and women can manifest themselves quite differently. For example, in urolithiasis, the process of urination is accompanied by a sharp pulsating pain not only in the sexual organ itself, but also in the perineum.
The jet may be uneven and stop suddenly, until the moment of feeling of complete emptying of the bladder.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland always occurs with disorders of urination such as burning, frequent urge, feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, pain in the lower back and groin, fever, and difficult uration. Urine can change color and smell, become turbid, with impurities and sediment.
Painful urination is a consequence of the development of sexually transmitted infections:
In this case, the discomfort during the act of urination is due to swelling of the head of the penis. Following the problems with severe pain in the groin and lower back, urine becomes a sharp unpleasant odor, there are purulent or cheesy discharge from the urethral canal.
Men may suffer from pain during urination during excessive exercise or with certain types of injuries. Too tight underwear is also considered to be the cause of the unpleasant phenomenon.
Painful urination in children
Painful urination is found not only in adults, but also in children. The causes of the unpleasant symptom are several - cystitis, infection of the urethra, kidney disease, salts and crystals in the urine, and the like. In parallel with this, complete or partial incontinence of urine is possible (especially during sleep), frequent urging to the toilet, discharge from the urethral canal, a strong smell of urine.
Most often, pediatric patients are diagnosed with cystitis of bacterial or viral origin.
The most prominent symptom of the disease is a sharp pain during the act of urenia. Parents can easily notice this by the reaction of a child who cannot speak. In the case of urolithiasis, the pain spreads to the lower abdomen, lower back and groin area, always increasing during a trip to the toilet. The child becomes sluggish, sedentary, loses appetite
In children, a vesicle reflux can also develop. In this pathology, the urine from the bladder should not be in the urethra, but in the pelvis - the process is accompanied by acute pain in the lower back and navel. Hormonal changes in adolescent bodies can trigger the formation of crystals in the urine. Small stones with sharp edges scratch the walls of the urethral canal, hence pain and burning.
Parents should be attentive to the health of their children. Having noticed the signs of disturbances in the process of urination, one should immediately seek advice from a specialist who can identify the cause of the pathology and prescribe an effective treatment.
Urologist - a narrow specialist in the treatment of organs of the urinary system. It should be addressed to him when anxious symptoms appear, in particular, when pains in the process of urination. In some cases, first it is better to go to a general specialist - therapist or pediatrician. A woman may pre-visit a gynecologist.
After interviewing the patient and identifying all complaints, the urologist conducts a general examination of the external genital organs, or immediately issues a referral for tests.
The list of required tests includes general urinalysis, blood test and smear for sexually transmitted infections.
Not be superfluous and ultrasound, during which you can check the condition of the pelvic organs and kidneys. When all the results are obtained, the specialist will be able to establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
The duration of therapy and the rate of onset of full recovery depends on the reasons causing painful urination, the stage of the disease and the general condition of the patient.