Diseases

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatment is a set of measures aimed at getting rid of the disease, improving the patient's well-being and his speedy recovery. Cancer is a dangerous disease, which is a malignant tumor that is rapidly growing in size and metastasizing in the later stages of the disease. This is one of the most common diseases, and according to statistics, over the past hundred years it has risen from ninth to second place in terms of mortality and morbidity, second only to cardiovascular pathologies. There are 4 stages of the disease, characterized by the severity of the disease and the damage that the tumor causes to the human body. If in the early stages it is possible to completely cure this disease, then in the last stage it is almost an incurable disease.

However, recent studies by foreign and domestic scientists indicate that cancer is curable, and already at the moment there are innovative techniques that allow you to permanently get rid of this disease.

Is this really possible? Is it true that the fourth stage of carcinoma can be cured? What treatment against cancer is considered the most effective? Let's try to answer these and other questions in the article below.

Modern methods of dealing with cancer

Carcinoma is a dangerous and, in many cases, deadly disease. And if cancer of the first and second degrees is treatable, and the majority of the patient gets rid of this disease forever, then at the last stages of squamous and other types of cancer, the prognosis is disappointing.

In such cases, radical experimental treatment comes to the rescue, most often abroad. Indeed, progress does not stand still, and modern technologies have made a serious breakthrough in the treatment of carcinoma. New discoveries and innovations, both abroad and in our country, offer promising prospects in this area, forcing you to believe that cancer will win.

Innovative treatment of carcinoma includes various methods, including nanotechnology, laser surgery, genetic engineering, targeted therapy, oxygen therapy and others.

Using any opportunities, scientists are trying to find alternative treatment, instead of traditional therapy against cancer - radiation and chemotherapy, causing many side effects. Of course, in the most developed countries, the development of the medical industry has stepped far forward and is at a very high level, so many patients tend to get high-quality and effective treatment abroad. Especially because there are taken even for the most hopeless patients and use a variety of ways to fight cancer to achieve positive results. Reviews of many patients treated abroad show that this therapy really helps to get rid of the disease even in advanced stages.

Radiotherapy in Oncology

Radiotherapy, nuclear therapy or radiation therapy is the treatment of cancer with ionizing radiation. Radiological irradiation is used both to destroy malignant tumors, and to alleviate the patient's condition and relieve symptoms of the disease. Cancer is afraid of radiation. The essence of this method is that various kinds of radiation destroy cancer cells, due to the cessation of their division and DNA damage.

There are three types of radiation therapy:

  • contact;
  • remote;
  • radionuclide

Contact, or brachytherapy, is performed by applying a radiation source directly to the tumor itself. Such irradiation affects only superficial cancers, since the treatment is performed intraoperatively. This method, although gentle enough for healthy tissue, is used quite rarely.

Remote radiation therapy is used much more often, although it entails many side effects, since there can be many healthy tissues between the radiation source and the tumor, and the more of them, the more difficult it is to bring the required dose of radiation to the site of impact.

Radionuclide therapy is carried out by the introduction of intravenous or oral medications that selectively accumulate in the tissues of the tumor and gradually destroy it. In this way, thyroid cancer, leukemia and some rare types of carcinoma are treated. Also isotope treatment is used to relieve pain syndromes in secondary bone cancer, affecting the area near the metastasis and the surrounding nerve endings.

Often, radiation therapy is indicated both after surgery and before it:

  • to reduce the size of the tumor before surgery to remove the tumor;
  • to destroy the remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Since during radiology treatment, in addition to the tumor itself, nearby tissues are also affected, there are two groups of possible side effects that have negative consequences for the body: local, caused by radiation, and systemic, caused by the disintegration of irradiated cells.

Local are:

  • radiation burns;
  • increased fragility of blood vessels;
  • small hemorrhages;
  • the appearance of ulcers.

The system can be attributed to:

  • weakness and fatigue;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • hair loss and brittle nails;
  • oppression of blood formation and change in the blood picture.

Laser therapy for oncology

Photodynamic therapy or PDT is a gentle method of treating cancer with lasers and sensitizers - substances that destroy damaged cancer cells when exposed to light.

Therapy has the following steps:

  1. Introduction to the blood of the drug sensitizer.
  2. The accumulation of drugs in the tissues of the tumor.
  3. Exposure to laser radiation on the affected area.

As a result, killer cells are formed that have a detrimental effect on the diseased cells.

Indications for such therapy are:

  • melanoma and other types of skin cancer;
  • tumors in hard to reach places;
  • cases of failure of the patient from surgery;
  • early stages of cancer of the mucous membrane of the cervix, tongue, pharynx, larynx, stomach and bladder.

The advantage of this therapy over radiation exposure is the preservation of nearby tissues. So, for example, in lip cancer, under the influence of radiation, the jaw bone tissue atrophies and teeth begin to fall out. With the use of laser therapy, all this can be avoided.

The main side effect of such therapy is increased sensitivity to light. The drug, having a cumulative property, can remain in the body for several days or even weeks. At this time, even a slight patient's stay in the sun leads to the appearance of pain and pain in the eyes, blisters on the skin. However, the use of various cosmetics can significantly improve the condition of the patient, which can be traced through the photo.

Medications for the treatment of carcinoma

Drug treatment of cancer can be divided into:

  • anticancer drugs;
  • immunovusting agents;
  • analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • hormonal agents;
  • cytostatic drugs.

Some of them are listed in the table.

Medications for the treatment of carcinoma
TradenameActive substancePharmaceutical Group
AvastinBevacizumabAntineoplastic drugs
Interferon alfaInterferonAntiviral drugs
IressaGefitinibAntineoplastic drugs
LomustineLomustineNitrosourea derivatives and triazenes
MumieMumieDrugs affecting the digestive system and metabolic processes
RoncoleukinRecombinant interleukin-2Drugs, stimulating immune processes
TamoxifenTamoxifen citrateAntiestrogens
TimalinBovine Thymus ExtractDrugs, stimulating immune processes
TodicampMilk Ripe Walnut ExtractAntitumor and anti-inflammatory drugs

In folk medicine, the treatment of oncology with Chlorophyll, Trichopol, and the drug ASD-2 fraction is practiced. For the same purpose, folk healers recommend the use of hydrogen peroxide, to treat cancer with wormwood and iron and other measures. But we will take a closer look at the medical treatment of the disease offered by traditional modern medicine.

Biotherapy in Oncology

Biological treatment is a treatment of malignant neoplasms with the use of substances derived from living organisms.

In some biotherapy techniques, a vaccine or various bacteria can be used to stimulate the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells. In this regard, biotherapy is often called immunotherapy.

Immunotherapy is used at all stages of cancer, as an additional tool in surgical operations, and as an independent treatment. There are two types of biological drugs used in oncology. It:

  • cytokines used in cytokine therapy;
  • monoclonal antibodies.

Once in the human body, a monoclonal antibody or cytokine, pathologically affect the malignant cells and overlap the power supply system of the tumor, thereby blocking its growth, and hence the entire cancer process.

Side effects from biotherapy:

  • nausea and weakness;
  • allergic reactions;
  • low blood pressure;
  • inflammation of the mucous membranes.

The main groups of biological drugs used in the treatment of cancer:

  • treatment with cytokines that transmit information between immune cells;
  • therapy with monoclonal antibodies that detect and destroy cancer cells;
  • the use of gamma interferon, detrimental effect on cancer cells;
  • treatment with dendritic cells derived from blood stem cells, which, when interacting with infected cells, disinfect them;
  • the creation of anticancer vaccines derived from tumor cells, which, when introduced into the human body, provoke the development of antitumor antibodies;
  • use of TIL cells;
  • the use of interleukins that carry information about cancer cells;
  • T-helper treatment.

Often in such cases, treatment with Interferon, Roncoleukin and Timalin is prescribed. Most often, this therapy is used for cervical cancer, stomach cancer, prostate carcinoma, melanoma and lung cancer.

Also for the fight against cancer using proteolytic enzymes, which also contribute to the destruction of abnormal cells.

Gene Therapy for Oncology

Genetic treatment is one of the newest therapies to fight cancer cells. In essence, in-vivo genetic treatment is the transfer of genes, in other words, the introduction of various genetic preparations into diseased cells or nearby tissues. And also there is ex-vivo therapy, in which the cancer cells are initially taken from the patient, then a healthy gene is inserted into them, and mutated cells are introduced back into the body. Such treatment is carried out with special vectors created by genetic engineering - viruses, nanoparticles or stem cells.

This therapy is indicated for various types of cancer at any stage.

But this method has its own side effects:

  • erroneous introduction of the gene into healthy cells;
  • transmission of the virus to other people;
  • damage to healthy tissues due to overexpression of the introduced gene;
  • the appearance of secondary cancer;
  • flu-like symptoms.

Chemotherapy for Oncology

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer by administering anticancer drugs. Chemotherapy drugs contribute to the destruction of cancer cells. Chemical therapy for cancer can be used as an independent treatment and in combination with other methods. Most often, oncologists prescribe a comprehensive combination treatment, which uses radiation therapy, chemistry and surgery.

Chemotherapy is used for different purposes:

  • adjuvant chemotherapy is a postoperative cancer treatment aimed at destroying cancer cells remaining in the body;
  • Non-Adjuvant Chemotherapy is used to reduce a cancerous tumor before surgery or radiation therapy.

For these purposes, use the treatment with tablets, capsules, injected medication intravenously. Used with such therapy and hormones. When hormone therapy for cancer is often prescribed tamoxifen or its equivalent. Most often, chemotherapy is used after surgery or radiotherapy to prevent possible relapses. However, this method of treatment has a lot of adverse reactions and entails negative consequences:

  • development of osteoporosis;
  • profuse tearing;
  • disorders of the cardiovascular system;
  • hair loss and baldness;
  • changes in the condition of nails and skin;
  • nausea, vomiting, upset stomach and intestines;
  • appetite disturbance;
  • anemia;
  • increased puffiness;
  • memory impairment.

This method is proposed for the treatment of heart cancer, since surgery for this disease is excluded.

Surgical intervention

Surgery for oncology is one of the most common and effective treatments for cancer. Surgery is used at various stages of cancer and includes both the removal of the primary tumor and possible metastases.

Such operations are performed with a scalpel and depend largely on the size of the tumor and its localization. In some cases, you may need only a minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, in others - resorted to the removal of a whole organ or part of the body.

In this way, these types of cancer are most often treated: breast carcinoma, stomach cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, prostate carcinoma, and others.

Complications and side effects with this therapy:

  • infectious complications due to inappropriate intake of antibacterial drugs;
  • bleeding during surgery;
  • possible damage to nearby organs and tissues;
  • postoperative pain syndromes.

In the early stages of cancer, methods such as cryodestruction, hyperthermia, laser surgery, or ultrasound surgery are used.

Surgical intervention most often comes in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy.

The treatment regimen is prescribed by the attending physician individually for each patient.

Alternative Medicine for Oncology

In the treatment of cancer there are many alternative methods. Consider briefly some of them.

Diet therapy

When cancer is very important and proper nutrition. Therefore, a balanced diet is shown to patients at any stage of the disease, contributing to the restoration of body tissues and cells, improving well-being and metabolism, and preventing inflammatory processes. This is a very important component in the complex treatment of cancer diseases and their prevention.

General recommendations in this case are as follows:

  • eat more vegetables;
  • eat yellow and orange fruits;
  • prefer green tea;
  • eat garlic, onion, and soy;
  • eat citrus fruits rich in vitamin C.
  • use complex vitamin preparations, especially vitamin B17.

Austrian doctor Rudolf Broys offers his method of curing cancer in 42 days. It was based on the treatment of hunger, in which you can use only juices and herbal infusions. Such treatment is most effective in the early stages of the disease.

Some traditional healers propose to engage in fasting or raw food, but the effectiveness of such methods is not scientifically proven. Therefore, to do it or not, you decide.

Urinotherapy

Another method of alternative medicine is urinotherapy. Many folk healers talk about the miraculous cure for cancer with urine, and even camel's urine. But to consider this method of treatment as a panacea for cancer is not recommended. It is best to do this for prevention after traditional treatment options. Trying on yourself various methods of alternative medicine do not forget about the most important thing - your health is in your hands.

Hirudotherapy

Leech therapy is also quite developed as an alternative way to get rid of cancer. But it is better to use this method after surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or other traditional methods of therapy, in order to prevent the occurrence of relapses.

Cold treatment

Cryotherapy along with hyperthermia are also among the alternative cancer treatment options. Treatment with cold or high temperature can help in the early stages of the oncological process and such therapy is performed only on localized areas of the body. It is best to use freezing or burning to treat skin cancer, as well as some internal tumors - cervical cancer or prostate carcinoma.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound treatment is widespread in the treatment of cancer. Ultrasonic waves generate cavitation and heat energy aimed at destroying cancer cells. This therapy is most often used for bone cancer - the coccyx, spine, leg bone and others, breast cancer, carcinoma of the pancreas, carcinoma of the prostate.

Palliative treatment

Palliative treatment is a therapy aimed at alleviating the patient’s condition in cases where the disease has passed into an incurable stage. Such treatment can improve the patient’s quality of life and increase its duration through palliative surgery.

Palliative surgery is a surgical procedure in which the patient is not completely cured of cancer, but through such an operation can significantly improve his or her life. If the tumor has significantly sprouted into nearby organs and there is no possibility to remove it without touching it, then such a neoplasm is subject to partial removal, which leads to a significant reduction in the unpleasant symptoms of the disease and a significant reduction in pain.

Summing up

Treatment of cancer in children and adults requires a long time and considerable effort. Although cancer is a serious disease, and in the advanced stages it is almost incurable, now scientists are developing new modern methods of treating the disease, which have favorable prognoses and give hope even to hopeless patients. Among them are nanotechnology, genetic engineering, targeted treatment, and others.

With this disease, many people resort to methods of alternative therapy: treatment with the ASD-2 fraction, urinotherapy, leech therapy. But such methods should in no case become an alternative to the standard complex treatment of oncology.

Watch the video: Immunotherapy vs. targeted therapy for cancer treatment (November 2019).

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