Medical research and diagnostics

X-ray (radiography) of the femur

X-ray (X-ray) of the femur is a modern diagnostic method that does not require lengthy special training. The procedure is carried out for 15 minutes and includes a bone scan in two projections. The results of the study make it possible to assess the condition of the adjacent joints and the immediate skeletal system of the lower limbs.

Feasibility study

Ray methods of research are very popular all over the world. Thanks to the obtained images (research results), it is possible to assess the condition and structural features of the bones. The femur is one of the largest in the human body. Identifying problems in this part of the body is the primary task of the surgeon to whom an adult or a child has complained.

Pathological changes are clearly visible in the picture, although they do not cause pronounced symptoms. The basis of the method is the effect of X-rays on human tissue and bones: each structure of the human body has its own density and is displayed differently in the pictures. Soft tissues transmit rays much better than bones, so the skeleton, and not muscle tissue, is evaluated in the picture. Dense anatomical structures - the bones - are detailed and enlarged on the obtained images: this method of research in most cases eliminates the need for a diagnostic operation.

Indications for X-ray examination

Diagnosis of the skeletal system is prescribed in cases where there are direct complaints from the patient - pain while walking or sitting is an indication for X-rays. Fractures and bone fractures are accompanied by a strong pain syndrome, therefore, radiography is appointed immediately. Open fractures with lesions of soft tissues are diagnosed using X-rays, which do not affect the condition of wounds and cuts.

Displacement of bone fragments, tumors on the bone, its deformation and external changes in the shape of the lower extremities are direct indications for further x-ray examination. Osteomyelitis and periostitis relate to pathologies that affect the skeletal system: during a full examination, the patient undergoes an obligatory examination of the skeletal system.

Assigned procedure immediately after injury. Accidents, falls, severe bruises and injuries need a comprehensive examination of the body. Swelling and redness also lead to the appointment of a physician, which excludes the pathology of the skeletal system. There is a need for a procedure in patients undergoing rehabilitation after surgical matching of bones. With the help of images it is easier to control the dynamics in the treatment of complex patients.

Contraindications to the procedure

Direct contraindications for the study have been identified. Allergic reactions to X-rays are not observed. The limitation is the age of the patients - no procedure is prescribed for children under 6 years of age unless absolutely necessary. Infants up to one year of age are absolutely contraindicated: their bodies cannot cope with even the minimum dose of radiation.

If contraindications arise, alternative research methods are prescribed - CT (computer tomography).

afia) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are able to replace images taken with an x-ray machine. The first type of research clearly visualizes the bone, details its structure, and MRI will help diagnose problems that are found in the soft tissues around the bone.

Research benefits

Modern radiographic systems provide high-quality images in a combination of scanned images from different planes. The main advantage of the method is the speed of diagnosis: depending on the complexity of the injury or pathology, the whole process takes no more than 20 minutes. Digital signal transmission accelerates the speed of image processing - this factor is especially important if you need to urgently understand the cause of the serious condition of the patient.

The procedure is performed in a comfortable environment. Modern devices can read digital images from different planes, without uncomfortable postures for patients (people are placed on a convenient table). Thanks to a digital snapshot, the attending physician can make a diagnosis without delay and begin urgent treatment. The radiation load is strictly regulated by international protocols, so the health of the patient undergoing research is not in danger.

Disadvantages of the diagnostic method

Informative procedure does not always help to know the exact diagnosis. Modern devices are characterized by high image accuracy, but flat images do not provide exhaustive information on the location of pathologies in all planes - using the image it is impossible to determine the exact size of the pathology, its structure and vastness. To improve the results, two cross-sectional studies are carried out at once: they take pictures from different angles.

The main disadvantages of the study:

  • inaccuracy of images;
  • incomplete picture of the disease (you can not explore the adjacent soft tissue);
  • age restrictions;
  • for pregnant women, an x-ray of the femur is prescribed in extreme cases;
  • radiation dose, which is dangerous in subsequent repeated X-ray studies.

Inaccurate pictures are obtained if the limb was located incorrectly. The dense structure of the femur hides small pathologies, not allowing to identify the problem in a timely manner. It is difficult to read pictures of patients with pathologies of the skeletal system - the loose structure of the skeleton affects the accuracy of the image.

How to prepare for the study?

An x-ray study is conducted in a specialized office and at the direction of the attending physician. There is no special preparation for this type of research - the patient must obediently follow all the recommendations of doctors and medical personnel.

Directly in the patient's office they put on protective clothing (the upper part of the body is covered to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues). Children undergo the procedure in the presence of parents who are closed with specialized clothing.

Features of the study

The quality of the resulting image depends on the apparatus that produces the irradiation of the human femur. Before the procedure, the patient is examined the femoral head for a sign of aseptic necrosis. Any invasive research is a risk that the attending physician excludes in advance. The death of bone tissue makes it difficult to diagnose related diseases. Before the procedure, the doctor assesses the risks to the patient and prescribes x-rays from different angles.

If the bone fixer is damaged, problems with the diagnosis of diseases can occur. Excessive and abnormal stress on the bones leads to dystrophic processes. Cracks and fractures are a consequence of the disease, they are difficult to see on inaccurate images. In case of damage to the lock, additional research is necessary.

How do x-rays?

A study is being conducted in a room that is equipped to protect health workers and patients from radiation. The patient needs to remove a piece of clothing - unnecessary items and jewelry can interfere with the rapid investigation of the problem. On the table where the patient goes, there is a special marking: marks help to correctly position the body of the person to get clear pictures. The X-ray exposure zone should be minimal: the image captures the head of the femur and its base.

Aprons with lead inserts cover the human thyroid gland and its genitals, which are particularly sensitive to radiation. For direct projection, the patient lies directly on his back. Legs must be straight. In this position, you can get a picture of the femur with the joints. The side view is scanned from above when the patient is lying on the healthy side. The second leg and the body are deflected to the side so as not to disturb the holistic picture of one femur. The pose should be fixed before the end of the X-ray examination.

As soon as the patient takes the correct posture (with a dressed apron and overlays), the medical staff will leave the next room protected from radiation, in which the images are displayed on the screen through the control panel. If necessary, the patient changes position according to the instructions of the workers. On average, on one plane (a snapshot at one angle) it takes no more than 7 minutes - all this time the patient needs to maintain immobility. After the end of the procedure, the patient waits for the results and interpretation of the received images.

Decoding results

The conclusion about the results of radiography gives the doctor. The radiologist is engaged in the description of a picture, decoding of the received picture. Such a specialist cannot diagnose or prescribe treatment. He explores the possible pathology and darkening, which are the error of the method of research, and not a disease. The doctor compares the state of the bone, as a separate entity in the human body, and assesses its position in relation to the entire bone system.

The study protocol is the information with which the doctor works. Pictures are not subject to diagnosis by the attending physician. The attending doctor relies on accurate decoding of the image. An experienced specialist compares the X-ray images and the results of other designated studies and on the basis of them makes an accurate diagnosis, and then prescribes treatment. The patient himself cannot prescribe this type of study.

Watch the video: Imaging of the Hip: More Radiographic Essentials! (November 2019).

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