Diphenyl is a food concentrate used mainly to prolong the shelf life of vegetables and fruits. This food supplement can be seen under the symbol E230. Another name is biphenyl. At its core, it is an organic compound, with a pronounced antibacterial effect. Crop diphenyl allows you to prevent the beginning of rotting, mold and fungi.
Thanks to the E230, it became possible to transport the fresh crop over long distances without losing its quality characteristics. But, like any other chemically active substance, diphenyl has a certain effect on the human body. About this effect and other properties of food concentrate and talk more.
Method of obtaining
Diphenyl is also found in natural conditions, but not in its pure form, but as a component of combustible minerals - some types of tar, oil and gas. Of combustible materials, E230 is isolated by distillation. There is also an industrial method for producing a preservative based on the dehydrogenation of benzene.
Since biphenyl can be obtained exclusively by chemical reactions, the substance contains in its composition a variety of impurities, some of which are toxic. For example, phenylphenol.
Appearance E230 - transparent, whitish or yellow crystals, which almost do not dissolve in water. Often the substance is immediately mixed with wax in production - it is the wax-like mass that is designed to protect vegetables and fruits from rapid deterioration.
Solvents are alcohols and benzenes. Taste additive does not have. Depending on the amount of impurities, diphenyl may be odorless or have a rather sharp specific aroma.
Packaging depends on the volume - small doses of preservative are packaged in glass vials and jars with airtight lids. For industries that purchase supplements in large volumes, it is packaged in metal drums.
Physical properties of matter
The main property of biphenyl is the ability to significantly increase the shelf life of food products, in particular, vegetables and fruits. That is why the additive is among the preservatives.
E230 is a fairly strong allergen and can cause both local skin reactions and more serious consequences for the body - shortness of breath, disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, edema, etc. An allergic reaction is usually almost instantaneous - immediately after eating a vegetable or fruit that has been treated with a preservative, redness of the skin that comes into contact with the treated surface appears. Lips and tongue may swell.
A significant increase in adverse reactions is observed in the presence of individual intolerance of this component or in excess of the maximum permissible consumption rate.
The nutritional value
Biphenyl has no beneficial effects on the body. And because of the content of many chemical impurities can be harmful to health. Part of the highly developed countries attributed the addition of E230 to the number of prohibited for use in the food industry. According to the current legislation of our country, allows the use of diphenyl in the manufacture of food. The only thing is that there are established norms for the introduction of a preservative into the product, which manufacturers must adhere to.
Daily consumption of food with a chemically active substance should not exceed 0.5 mg / kg.
Application in the manufacture of products
Despite the fact that today the toxicity of E230 additive has scientific confirmation, many manufacturers of products continue to actively apply it in production. Diphenyl can be found in such foods:
- yogurt and other dairy products;
- spread margarine;
- canned fruit;
- ice cream;
But most often the external surface of vegetables and fruits is treated with biphenyl before long-term transportation. Therefore, before eating overseas fresh fruits, you must carefully wash them and cut off the skin. Thus, you can almost 100% get rid of the preservative. Since E230 does not dissolve in pure water, a weak alkaline solution can be prepared for washing.
In addition to the food industry, diphenyl is used in leather dressing, as well as in the production of oils, paints and for the manufacture of coolant for nuclear reactors.
Effect on the body
As mentioned above, diphenyl can harm the human body. The main danger is in the additional substances that are formed in the composition in the process of obtaining food concentrate. It is these carcinogens that poison the body and provoke the development of malignant neoplasms. In most countries of the world, it is forbidden to use E230 not only in food production, but also in the manufacture of animal feed.
Biphenyl is able to influence the work of the central nervous system, causing its excessive arousal. As a result, a person suffers from lack of sleep, nightmares and, as a result, a nervous exhaustion occurs.
Large doses of E230 have a detrimental effect on the liver and kidneys, causing irreversible changes in vital organs. When the liver is no longer able to cope with the toxic hazard that has arisen, poisoning of the whole organism begins. Another negative effect of diphenyl is the ability to influence the work of the cardiovascular system.
When working with biphenyl in a dry form, dust is formed, which, when in contact with eyes, causes burning and redness. Penetration of small particles of the substance in the upper respiratory tract provokes headache, irregular heartbeat and disorders in the digestive system. With constant contact with the skin is likely a variety of skin diseases.
Severe health consequences caused by the use of diphenyl are possible if the marginal rate of consumption is not complied with (up to 0.5 mg per 1 kg of weight). If the substance enters the body in minimal doses, it is split into non-toxic components during the processing process and excreted in the urine.