Wheat bread is the most popular bakery product, considered the main product on every table. It has a balanced vitamin and mineral composition, great taste. The history of bread originates in the Neolithic era. In its original form, it resembled a baked gruel made from water and cereals. The descendants of such bread are made all over the world to this day. These include Indian chapata, Chinese baobin, Mexican tortilla, North American corn and Scottish oatmeal.
It is believed that the first bread based on yeast dough appeared in Egypt, where local conditions favored the active growth of wheat. To ferment the dough (as yeast), bacteria in the air were used.
“Bread is the head of everything” - youths from the older generation often hear. Being the basis of nutrition for different nations, it is considered a source of life and a symbol of labor. In Christianity, bread is used in the sacrament of Holy Communion.
Advantages and disadvantages
According to statistics, during his life a person eats more than 15 tons of bread. Which product should be preferred: white or black?
From the point of view of dietetics, bread causes not a bright opinion among gastroenterologists. To improve the taste and appearance, manufacturers often replace useful dietary fiber products with less coarse fiber, which not only does not provide any value to the human body, but also can cause harm. At the same time, the use of thermophilic yeast leads to dangerous consequences: a decrease in the level of calcium in the bones, the development of osteoporosis, the formation of stones in the gall bladder, impaired blood flow, liver function, and the formation of a tumor.
White bread is a high-calorie product made from refined wheat flour of the highest grade, which contains many simple carbohydrates. Promotes weight gain.
People with diabetes need to remember that wheat bread has a high glycemic index - 95. After eating it, the blood glucose level instantly rises, the body enters the emergency insulin production mode. At the same time, the process of splitting saturated fats first slows down, then stops completely.
Wheat baked goods are easier to digest by the human body, and the mineral compounds they contain are absorbed faster than pastries made from rye flour. However, they contain substances that promote fermentation. The low fiber content negatively affects the intestines, which causes the formation of malignant tumors.
Interestingly, stale bread is more easily absorbed by the human body than fresh pastries, which contain starch, which is a paste. It, in turn, irritates the walls of the digestive tract. Rusks can injure the gastric mucosa, so they are not recommended for people with gastritis and ulcers, with food poisoning, flatulence, after a complex surgical operation during rehabilitation.
The advantage of a rye product is its rich chemical composition. Brown bread is a source of B, E vitamins, fiber, lactic acid bacteria, iron, zinc, and magnesium. It takes longer to digest than white, contains elements that interfere with the absorption of protein, calcium.
Scientists believe that flavored pastry based on wheat flour increases the risk of developing problems with the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. At the same time, white bread energizes, and black - promotes weight loss.
Depending on the type of raw materials used, wheat bread is made from flour of the first (1st grade), second (2nd grade) or top grade (w / c). Production technology involves the preliminary cleaning of grains from the shell containing the bulk of nutrients - vitamins, trace elements, fiber. This impoverishes the final product. The higher the grade of flour, the less nutrients it contains.
White bread is produced in two types - hearth and pan. The technologies of their baking practically do not differ from each other, while for the preparation of the first form is not used.
Stages of bread production
Preparation of dough followed by kneading dough. First of all, yeast and flour are made from yeast. The introduction of dough is a classic method of improving the quality of bread. The more flour absorbs liquids, the more tender the baking will turn out and the longer it will retain its freshness.
Cooking and adding dough to the dough is a long and costly process, significantly increasing the production cycle. In this case, the output is a natural product. The production of dough is carried out in a closed manner. The process is fully automated, lasts at least 14 hours.
The finished dough is poured into a mobile bowl - deja, where additional ingredients are introduced. Then it is rolled up under the mixer. Proper processing of the components determines the appearance of the bread after baking.
To reduce labor costs and production costs, chemical additives - improvers are introduced into the dough. For example, to reduce the time spent on cooking dough, substances that absorb water faster than flour are added to the composition of the raw material. Bread prepared using this technology turns out to be soft, lush, but very stale and loses taste very quickly.
The finished dough ripens at low temperature for 14-28 hours. During this period, it undergoes a natural fermentation process, enriched with taste and smell.
Division, molding of the test. The bakery uses three lines of working with raw materials: a Japanese machine, a divider-rounding, baguette.
The first allows you to work with batter, with humidity up to 85%, the second, on the contrary, with dense. And the third performs division operations.
To obtain pieces of the exact mass, the necessary values are set on the divider. The device weighs the workpieces on an electronic scale. At the same time, it is important to consider that during the baking process part of the water evaporates, so the mass of the workpieces should be 10% more than the finished product.
Interestingly, the length of the baguette blank is checked manually with a tape measure.
After dividing, the dough is left to rest, otherwise the crumb will be “glued”. Due to the high humidity and growth of the yeast, the workpiece is saturated with moisture inside the proofing.
Before baking, the dough is spread on a baking sheet or planter, be sure to grease with a mixture of water, flour, starch or make cuts. Otherwise, the workpiece may lose its shape, become covered with bubbles.
Baking. The form with the dough is put in the oven, where it is blown with hot air. Finished bread is taken out with a wide shovel, sent to the packaging, where the remnants of flour are removed from it, placed in boxes. In no case can baked pastries be sealed in a plastic bag, otherwise the crumb will become flabby and the crust will become soft. As a result, he will "suffocate."
The bread, prepared according to the classic recipe with the introduction of dough without the addition of improvers, never molds.
To improve taste characteristics, before baking, the product is sprinkled with sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, and poppy seeds.
Wheat bread is one of the most consumed foods in the world. Good taste, the smell of fresh pastries stimulate appetite, promote digestion. Bread starch is partially gelatinized, partly acquired soluble state, proteins are in denatured form, fats are emulsions. Due to the developed porosity and soft consistency, the availability of baking for the work of digestive juice enzymes increases.
The energy value of bakery products depends on the type of flour used. The lower it is, the less starch, more nutrients in it. Conversely, premium flour is almost completely devoid of valuable nutrients.
In bread, carbohydrates always prevail (50%). They satisfy the body's need for energy.
|Name||Energy value, calories||Protein gram||Fats gram||Carbohydrate gram|
|Premium Flour Bread||235||7,5||0,8||49,2|
|Grade 1 bread||235||7,8||1,0||48,3|
|Grade 2 Bread||228||8,6||1,3||45,2|
|Components||Content in 100 grams of product, grams|
|Premium Flour Bread||Grade 1 bread||Grade 2 Bread|
|Starch and Dextrins||48,5||46,2||47,2|
|Dietary fiber (g)||2,6||3,3||4,6|
|Mono- and disaccharides||0,7||2,1||2,5|
|Saturated fatty acids||0,2||0,2||0,3|
|Name||Nutrient content in 100 grams of product, milligrams|
|Premium Flour Bread||Grade 1 bread||Grade 2 Bread|
|Pantothenic Acid (B5)||0,18||0,29||0,46|
|Folic Acid (B9)||0,0225||0,027||0,029|
|Beta Carotene (A)||-||-||0,005|
Thus, the greatest value for the human body provides pastries made from flour of the 2nd grade. Despite the rich chemical composition, heat treatment leads to a loss of 70% of the components. As a result, mainly starch, which contributes to weight gain, enters the body.
In the digestive tract, baked goods break down into sugars, so the consumption of white baked goods should be limited to diabetics. In addition, excessive craving for pastries causes endocrine system diseases, destruction of intestinal microflora, and obesity.
Interestingly, in a day, people eat 9 million units of bread around the world.
How to cook at home
To obtain high-quality baked goods, it is important to use fresh, dry flour without lumps. If it is damp, it needs to be dried. To determine the suitability of flour, a pinch of the product is moistened with water, look at the color. If it is light, then it is fresh, darkened - stale.
A prerequisite for obtaining airy, soft baking is the sifting of flour, which contributes to its enrichment with oxygen.
The recipe for wheat bread with provencal herbs
- fresh yeast - 15 g;
- wheat flour 2 grades - 400 g;
- vegetable oil - 15 ml;
- dry spices (red hot pepper, sage, oregano, marjoram, cumin, basil, rosemary, savory, mint) - 15-30 g;
- warm water - 200 ml;
- salt - 10 g
- Make a dough. Mix yeast, water and 100 g flour, cover, leave for 40 minutes to wander.
- Introduce salt, oil, dry spices into the dough. Knead the dough well for 10-15 minutes. It should be soft, but not sticky.
- Roll into a ball, place in a bowl, cover. Pre-grease a baking sheet with vegetable oil. After the dough has doubled in volume, it is laid out on the work surface, a loaf is formed, and left for proofing for an hour. Then make cuts, sprinkled with herbs, poppy seeds or sesame seeds, sent to a preheated oven. Bake for 25 minutes at 200 degrees.
The finished bread has a golden crisp, porous crumb. Herbal pastries are best served with olive oil, salt and garlic.
Wheat is the most popular cereal culture, well absorbed by the human body. On its basis, white bread is prepared, which has a greater nutritional value (235 kcal per 100 g) than rye (190 kcal per 100 g). Characteristics of baking wheat flour are high porosity (> 50%), low humidity (45%) and acidity (4.2 degrees). Shelf life of the product is 24 hours.
Wheat bread made from coarse sorts of flour is more useful than higher quality because it contains more vitamins and fiber, which improves intestinal motility. Sometimes white baked goods may be allergic. This is a normal reaction of the body to a high protein content in the product and yeast. In this case, it is necessary to limit the intake of the allergen, consult a doctor.
In order for the bread to turn out to be lush and fragrant, in no case should cooling be allowed. Otherwise, it will get too thick texture, will be poorly digested.
Opara is considered ready for further use after it is covered with bubbles and increases in volume by 2 times.
Properly mixed, rested dough does not stick to hands.
The readiness of bread is determined using a wooden toothpick or sound. In the first case, it is thrust into the pulp, then gently reach. If it comes out with traces of dough - the product is baked, dry and clean - removed from the oven. In the second case, they knock on the lower crust of the loaf. A distinct sound indicates the readiness of the bread.
In order to avoid obtaining a rubbery crust and sticky crumb, freshly baked pastries are cooled only in a natural way, providing air flow to its lower part.