Satanic mushroom is a conditionally edible mushroom from the genus Boletus (Boletus), a family of boletaceae (Boletaceae). Allowed names: Satanic flying, Tubiporus satanas. The opinions of scientists regarding the fungus were divided. Some consider it poisonous, excluding the possibility of food consumption, others classify the mushroom as absolutely safe products, which, when properly administered, will enrich the diet and can not harm a person.
A distinctive feature of the conditionally edible fungus is its appearance. The hat grows from 6 to 25 centimeters in diameter. It is painted in a porous white-gray or light olive shade. The hat is fleshy, dense and quite massive. It develops in the form of a semicircle with distinct roundish bulges. The surface of the cap itself is characterized by a smooth, bare, dry texture. The texture may change depending on the weather: in slush, the surface is overgrown with a thin layer of thick slurry, and in sunlight it becomes smooth and completely dry back.
The size of the legs of the mushroom: 4-15x3-6 centimeters. The leg is central, ovoid. It is on this part of the fruiting body that a dangerous mushroom can be identified. It is painted in a saturated red color (with a noticeable yellow tint) and has a pronounced mesh pattern that protrudes on the surface.
The eukaryotic pulp is dense, painted white. The hue of the pulp varies depending on the location: in the leg it is painted pale yellow, at the break - red, above - it turns blue. The tubular layer of the hat also has a special variety of colors: first yellow, green, red, olive, then blue (turns blue after touching the body of the fungus). Spore powder is a pale green tint. The size of the spores is 10-16x5-7 microns. The shape of the spores is similar to an elongated elongated spindle. The structure is smooth, olive shade. It should be noted the fetid smell of the pulp of the "old" eukaryotes, which repels not only from the use of the fungus, but also from touching it. Some compare aroma with the stench of acidified foods. The "young" mushrooms taste much nicer: light, spicy, barely noticeable mushroom train. A tangible contrast to the smell creates a taste of pulp.
It is strictly forbidden to taste the mushroom in its raw form and is fraught with serious food poisoning.
The taste palette is filled with bright mushroom and barely noticeable sweetish notes.
The representative of the fleas grows mainly on carbonate soil. He chooses deciduous forests (less often - mixed) in the period from June to October. Distantly, the satanic mushroom resembles a traditional white mushroom (Boletus edulis). The main difference is the shade of the tubular layer and the legs of the fruiting body. Mushroom pickers often do not pay attention to such a nuance and, without realizing it, test their own body for strength.
The satanic mushroom is volatile. The mesh pattern changes its color from yellow-green to pink, the hat - from white to saturated swamp color. With age, even spores change their color from honey-yellow to contrasting brown. You need to know such "tricks" and be able to recognize a dangerous product in time.
Ecology and distribution
Eukaryote perfectly survives in deciduous forests, which are fully provided with sunlight. Ultraviolet radiation is one of the main requirements of the fungus for normal development and distribution. Most often, a satanic mushroom can be found next to such trees:
- chestnut (exclusively edible);
With these trees, boletus creates mycorrhiza (fungus root).
Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic fusion of mushroom mycelium with the roots of higher plants (in our case, with trees from the list). There are 3 types of mycorrhiza: endotrophic, ectotrophic and ectoendotrophic.
With ectotrophic mycorrhiza, hyphae of a satanic fungus braid the root of a tree with a dense network. In the course of such a merger, a peculiar cover forms and special mycorrhizal tubes. Borovik gradually penetrates into the tree, but, at the same time, does not spread in the cells.
With endotrophic mycorrhiza, tree cells are affected by fungal hyphae. The main feature: penetration occurs through the pores, without affecting the plasmalemma. The mushroom begins to merge with the tree, develop and grow inside the root. Entire clusters of fungal hyphae begin to form in the cells of the tree. They form in the form of tangles and gradually branch out inside the selected tree. Such glomerular formations are called arbuscules.
With ectoendomycorrhiza, a combination of signs of two processes occurs. The fungus “settles” in the roots of the host plant and can freely move from one stage of development to another.
For successful mycorrhiza, the fungus selects the calcareous soils of southern Europe, the southern part of European Russia, the Caucasus, the Middle East and the southern territory of the Primorsky Territory.
Economic value of mycorrhiza
Scientists have learned to adapt natural biological processes to various spheres of human existence. For example, microbiological inoculants (secreted during mycorrhiza) have found their application in agriculture. They help to increase the yield of many cultivated plants. Due to mycorrhiza, plants receive the maximum concentration of liquid, vitamins and useful minerals from the soil, which ultimately affects both productivity and yield. Scientists note that after mycorrhiza, the concentration of phosphorus (P) is especially increased.
The list includes only species of flying mushrooms (Boletus) with colored pores and pulp, which turns blue after contact with the external environment.
Inedible mushrooms are not eaten because of the bitter taste that is unpleasant for human receptors. Moreover, scientists say that most of them are dangerous for our body and are fraught with serious food poisoning. The inedible varieties of Boletus include:
- Boletus albidus or whitish boletus;
- Boletus calopus or an inedible mushroom;
- Boletus rhodoxanthus or pink-golden boletus;
- Boletus splendidus or a false species of satanic mushroom;
- Boletus legaliae or Borovik legal (legal name Borovik de Gal).
This list also includes rare and poorly understood species of boletus, the degree of safety / toxicity of which has not yet been fully studied.
Scientists distinguish a number of mushrooms, the opinion of which diverges. Some consider them dangerous and advocate toxic status, others themselves collect them in the forests and with a calm soul would feed a mushroom snack to relatives at a family dinner. The conditionally edible varieties of Boletus include:
- Boletus luridus or olive-brown oak (characterized by a high pastel-brown hat and quickly turning blue flesh in contact with the environment);
- Boletus erythopus or speckled oak (distinguished by a rich dark hat, the absence of a pronounced mesh on the stem of the fruiting body and rapidly turning blue flesh during contact with the environment).
The degree of toxicity of eukaryotes
The issue of food consumption of the satanic mushroom is still not completely resolved. But scientists still came to one unanimous opinion: in its raw form, boletus is incredibly dangerous and toxic. According to scientific studies, a small piece of pulp, whose weight does not exceed 1 gram, contains a high concentration of poison. It can cause severe digestive upset, in which some patients require hospitalization.
Scientists were divided into two groups: some believe that the concentration of poison decreases to conditionally safe after prolonged cooking, others argue that toxins do not disappear, and even after heat treatment can harm a person.
Is it possible to eat satanic mushroom?
European countries like the Czech Republic and France recognized the satanic mushroom as conditionally edible, regulate its collection and allow its citizens to eat the desired product. But not everyone approves of such a policy. For example, the author of the book "Mushrooms" (Le grand livre des Champignons) Gerard Udu describes Tubiporus satanas as a health hazard component that leads not only to food poisoning, but also death. Italian guides also classify the satanic mushroom as toxic foods that should not be eaten under any circumstances. Italians are inclined to believe that heat treatment does not affect the degree of toxicity, therefore, a ban on the collection and use of boletus has been introduced.
Given this controversial opinion of the scientific community, it is better to refuse the use of a satanic mushroom. Even prolonged heat treatment for 10 hours or more cannot give absolute guarantees and provide maximum protection for the human body. Do not sacrifice your own health and the condition of your loved ones.
The World Health Organization claims that 10 grams of pulp of a satanic mushroom may well cause the death of an adult healthy person. The cause of death lies in cardiac arrest and paralysis of the nervous system. Exposure to harmful components from eukaryotes can lead to suffocation, because the respiratory system simply can not function normally.
Do not conduct dangerous experiments and consume only those mushrooms that are officially authorized, are considered edible and absolutely safe for health. But do not lose your vigilance and check the quality of the consumed product even in supermarkets with packaged products. Check the name of the mushroom, its certificate of quality, period of sale, smell and appearance. Remember that poisoning can be not only conditionally edible, but ordinary mushrooms, which we see daily on store shelves.
First aid for mushroom poisoning
Signs of mushroom poisoning
The first signs of poisoning can occur more than 2 hours after a meal. Be careful and do not ignore dangerous symptoms.
The first clear symptoms are nausea and vomiting. Do not rush to turn off - this is not overeating, but rather check your heart rate / temperature to make sure the cause of malaise. After poisoning, a person has a weak pulse and a sharp increase in body temperature. After some time, a decrease in working capacity begins, a feeling of cold in the limbs, sharp abdominal pains.
Poisoning can trigger an exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that were in remission.
Severe abdominal pain alternates with diarrhea. In severe cases, a person will have to visit the toilet more than 15 times a day.
In case of poisoning with excessively toxic products (like a satanic mushroom), a person can develop delusions, hallucinations and a condition bordering on insanity. Moreover, a toxic mushroom can cause the development of a serious illness - botulism. The disease is fraught with permanent headache, difficulty swallowing, blurred vision, dry mouth, persistent nausea and vomiting, impaired stool and frequent convulsions.
If such symptoms occur, you should immediately consult a doctor to get timely help and prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body.
First aid for mushroom poisoning consists of a complex of the most simple manipulations. The first rule is to call a doctor. The faster you do this, the less you will have to writhe from pain and endure unpleasant changes within your own body. There is no need to heroize and go to the hospital yourself. Better observe bed rest and try to relax as much as possible before the ambulance arrives. Take a comfortable lying position, drink activated charcoal and try to use as much healthy liquid as possible (filtered cold water, cold strong tea). If all the actions are performed correctly and in a timely manner, then the competent actions of the doctor will put you on your feet the very next day.
If the mushroom was excessively toxic, then the treatment may take several days or even weeks. Take care of yourself and be extremely careful in your daily gastronomic journey.