Water is the most common liquid on the planet, and its formula, H2O, is perhaps the most famous chemical record in the world.
This is probably one of the most mysterious substances on Earth. At all times, people believed in the superpower of water: in ancient times they talked about "dead" and "living" water, today more and more often you can hear about the mystical properties of structured fluid. And researchers, the longer they study the properties of this substance, the more amazing discoveries they make. And even when sometimes it seems that all discoveries have been made long ago, scientists still find new pages in the "biography" of water, hitherto unknown "talents" of this miraculous liquid.
So what is this wonderful liquid, about which our ancestors told tales and legends, before which believers all over the world worship now, without which there would be no life on the planet, and indeed, from which the history of the Earth began? So, in fact, people know about water, in addition to the fact that it covers about 70 percent of the entire planet, and we ourselves are almost two-thirds of this substance. Now let's try to understand what role water plays in the Universe.
Water in terms of chemistry
H2O is an incredibly simple formula, but behind it is the most important and probably the most mysterious substance on the planet. And even chemistry, as a science, owes its existence to liquids - after all, it began with the study of aqueous solutions. Although the water formula does not seem complicated at first glance, researchers admit that this substance has not been studied enough yet, it still contains many secrets that humanity will have to discover.
Water, or as chemists call it, hydrogen oxide, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one - oxygen. When combined, these three elements create an incredibly strong bond, which is not so easy to destroy. The whole secret is that hydrogen ions are so small that they can penetrate into the shell of the oxygen atom of a neighboring molecule. Thus, a strong connection is formed, combining 4 elements. The strength of this connection has protected the structure of water from destruction for millions of years.
Interestingly, "water" is not the only name for this substance. Oddly enough, she has a lot of names. This is just water for us. And people of science call this clear liquid hydrogen oxide or hydroxide, oxidane, dihydrogen monoxide, dihydromonoxide, and even hydroxyl acid.
And by the way about acid. Water from the point of view of chemistry is considered as ampholyte - a substance that simultaneously has the properties of acid and base. And this also includes one of the unique properties of water.
Dihydrogen is a chemically active substance, a solvent of other elements - organic and inorganic. And at school, we were taught that H2O reacts with active metals (for example, calcium, potassium, sodium), halogens, such as fluorine or chlorine, as well as with salts, acids and many other compounds. In addition, when heated, it reacts with some other elements (iron, magnesium, coal, methane, alkyl halides).
When water is not liquid
Perhaps, there is no need to remind that water is a colorless substance without taste and smell, and depending on conditions, it can be in a liquid state, steam or ice. And we are all so used to it that this fact does not surprise even children. Although in reality, only water is capable of such “tricks” on the whole planet - no other substance can afford such transformations. And this again - thanks to a special type of bonds within the molecule.
100 degrees is not always the boiling point
It is well known that when a thermometer shows 0 degrees, the water freezes, and at 100 Celsius - it boils, turning into steam. But this law "works" only under the condition of the "correct" atmospheric pressure - 760 mm Hg. Art. (1 atmosphere). In proportion to the decrease in pressure, the melting point of ice rises, and the boiling point, on the contrary, decreases. When atmospheric pressure decreases to a certain indicator, water loses its ability to remain liquid: when temperature fluctuates, ice immediately turns into steam and vice versa. If you increase the pressure, you can achieve another interesting effect: for melting ice you will need a temperature above room temperature. And if in the H2O formula instead of oxygen there were its "neighbors" according to the periodic table (for example, sulfur or selenium), the substance would boil already at 80 degrees.
But in physics there is still such a thing as a triple point of water. This term refers to the moment when water exists simultaneously in three states: solid, liquid and gaseous. Scientists say that to achieve this effect, a pressure of 0.006 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.001 degrees Celsius are needed.
And one more amazing ability. If there are no dissolved gases in the water, it will not turn into ice even at 70 degrees of frost and does not boil even at +150.
Volumes out of rules
Density is another of the physical parameters characteristic of all substances on the planet. Water is no exception. But here, there were some “surprises”. H2O and in these characteristics managed to "break out" beyond the laws of physics.
Scientists have proven that the density of any substance depends on temperature and volume. With increasing temperature, the volumes of the substance increase and its density decreases. But this rule ceases to work with water, the temperature of which is from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius. More precisely, with increasing temperature, water volumes, on the contrary, decrease. And only due to the fact that the density of ice is lower than liquid water, water bodies always begin to freeze from above, and not from below. And the ice crust formed on top prevents the rest of the liquid from freezing.
And a few more unique features
In addition, as it stands to reason, we perceive the fact that hydrogen oxide under normal conditions (at certain indicators of temperature and pressure) is a colorless liquid without taste and odor. But, it turns out, in such circumstances only water is able to maintain fluidity. In a similar situation, other similar hydrogen compounds appear to humans in the form of gases. And again, all this is the merit of specific bonds within the H2O molecule.
Have you ever wondered why, having knocked over a glass, the liquid does not “scatter” to the sides, does not scatter, but forms a puddle with clearly defined edges? Due to the specificity of the water molecule, the substance retains viscosity and high surface tension (according to this indicator, dihydrogen monoxide loses only mercury).
Hydrogen oxide is one of the best solvents. Avoiding scientific terminology, this process can be described as follows. Water molecules take into the ring each molecule of the solute. But not chaotically, but according to a certain scheme: ions with a positive charge attract oxygen atoms, and negatively charged particles attract hydrogen. By the same principle, water fills the space in the cells of all living organisms.
And since there are almost always any salts in water, that is, ions with a positive and negative charge are present, it also has the ability of electrical conductivity. In this case, pure water that does not contain impurities of other ions, on the contrary, is an ideal insulator.
Where did H2O come from on the planet
Water is vital for the survival of mankind. Today we know a lot about this substance, except for the main and the very first: where did the water come from on the planet. Perhaps everyone will recall a picture from high school, which depicts the water cycle. The teacher told how this liquid evaporates from the oceans and lakes, condenses, forms clouds, and returns to earth again in the form of rain. In all this, of course, it makes sense. Except for one thing. This school picture in no way explained where the very first water came from ....
It is believed that the history of the appearance of water on our planet has about 13.8 billion years before the Big Bang. Astronomers believe that comets and asteroids that attacked our planet for millions of years carried the fluid to Earth. But is this all really happening? Today it’s still difficult to answer. But the scientific debate continues.
And most recently, researchers from the University of Hawaii, analyzing the composition of the rocks on the island of Baffin Island (Canada) came to an unexpected conclusion. They put forward a new theory - about the so-called "native" water on Earth. Rocks on the island "grew" directly from the mantle, without any influence of the earth's crust. And in their composition, the researchers found glass crystals, and in them - droplets of water. And interestingly, the chemical composition of the liquid "liberated" from the rock is identical to the formula of the rest of the water on the planet.
Hawaiian scientists do not undertake to refute the theory of asteroids and comets, but urge the scientific world to take a fresh look at the possible sources of truth on our planet. Perhaps when the Earth was still young, it was fed by moisture from several sources? ...
Moisture on the planet
On Earth, as the researchers calculated, there are quite a few - almost one and a half thousand million km cubic meter H2O.
At the same time, scientists convince, this value is stable and the amount of fluid on the planet has not changed for millions of years.
Part of it is superficial. These are precisely the reserves that are visible even from outer space, this is the liquid due to which our planet is called the Blue Ball. And it was the World Ocean that served as the beginning of all life on the planet. How did this happen? According to many scientists, billions of years ago, organic compounds were concentrated in closed reservoirs, which later helped to give rise to life. Scientists have yet to study how this all happened, but the fact that water is the mother of all living things is perceived as an axiom by modern science.
The second part of planetary moisture is underground reserves. Most often they are a kind of giant vessels containing water under high pressure. The first underground "reservoirs" are opened to geologists already at a depth of only a few meters. It is these water reserves that serve as “donors” for domestic wells. Meanwhile, given that the top layer of the earth is rather loose, these storerooms of moisture are often dirty and not suitable for drinking.
But, by the way, even in prehistoric times, people were able to purify water, making it suitable for use. For example, even the ancient Egyptians were the first on the planet to describe methods of water purification. This ancient instruction for the "production" of liquid for drinking dates from about 1500 BC. To make the liquid safe to drink, the ancient inhabitants of the banks of the Nile most often boiled it, heated it in the sun, or immersed a piece of hot iron in water. And to make it transparent, boiling liquid was passed through a layer of sand and gravel. Today, humanity is resorting to other methods of water purification using knowledge of chemistry and physics.
Almost 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. But 97% of all the moisture on the planet is a salty substance, saturated with various minerals and chemical compounds. Theoretically, a person can use it for drinking after purification from impurities. But in practice it is quite difficult and extremely expensive. Another 2 percent of the planet’s water reserves are fresh fluid stored in glaciers at the North and South Poles. These stocks could also serve a person to quench his thirst, if not for one “but” - these “storehouses” are too far located from the habitat of people. A little more than one and a half percent of all reserves are groundwater, and 0.001% of the moisture is stored in the clouds. And only less than 1 percent of H2O reserves are really accessible to people. But this is not all the water reserves of the Earth. More than 6 thousand km3 fluid is found in all living organisms on the planet. And these are plants, animals, and we are with you. After all, remember that a person is 60-70 percent of H2O.
If you calculate the percentage of all the water on the planet, it turns out that:
- 97.54% are oceans;
- 1.81% - glaciers;
- 0.63% - groundwater;
- 0.009% - rivers and lakes;
- 0.007% - salt water on the continents;
- 0.001% - water in the atmosphere.
Types of Earthly Water
Water on Earth is presented in salt form (more than 97 percent), fresh (2.5 percent) and in the form of brines (liquid mixed with salts, gum chemicals, organic compounds).
But this is not the only classification of water. Paying attention to the content of calcium and magnesium in its composition, soft and hard water are distinguished. Given the nature of the hydrogen isotope, water is light, heavy, and superheavy. In addition, some classifications separate the thawed substance from the “common water pot”, the structure of which, at times is convinced, is identical to the protoplasm of the cells of our body and has useful properties.
Water and ... climate
It is known that hydrogen oxide is able to give off heat, almost without reducing its own temperature. This is actually one of the factors on which the climate on the planet depends. In addition, terrestrial reliefs by and large are also, figuratively speaking, the work of the hands of water. Being the second most mobile substance (after air) on the planet, dihydrogen monoxide is able to travel long distances, "engraving" reliefs in its path.
But the Earth is not the only “habitat” of water. This substance is often found in space, though more often in the form of ice or steam. And it is this fact that allows some scientists to assume that life on other planets is also possible. Space researchers believe that some comets are 50 percent water (in the form of ice). And in 2009, NASA employees received reliable evidence that there is ice on the moon, and in large enough quantities. In addition, there is water-ice on the satellites of Saturn and Jupiter (Europe, Tefii, Enceladus, Ganymede), as part of asteroids, and also suggest that H2O is also found on trans-Neptune objects.
But the atmosphere of almost all the planets of the solar system (including the sun, including) contains water in the form of steam. Most of these reserves are in the atmosphere of Mercury - approximately 3.4%. For comparison: the terrestrial atmosphere above the tropics contains about 3-4% of the vapor, and in the Antarctic - only 2x10-5%.
But water reserves of the Cosmos are not limited to this. It is believed that liquid water is a common occurrence on some planetary moons. So far, scientists pin the greatest hopes on the satellite of Jupiter - Europe.
It is believed that a person consists of 2/3 of water. But in fact, this indicator is not static, and the water percentage in the composition of our body fluctuates throughout life.
Most of the moisture is in the human embryo. The fetus of the future person is approximately 97% of the water. A little less, within 92 percent of the fluid, is contained in the body of the newborn. Adolescents are already 80% of the water, and adults are “flooded” by 70-75 percent. And, as you already guessed, the least H2O in the body of people of advanced age is only 60%. Is it because over the years a person loses vitality and begins to hurt? Does the quality of our life depend on water?
Perhaps, water is the only substance, the absence of which the body reacts almost instantly and immediately with serious consequences. It is believed that without food a person can last several weeks. Deficiency of vitamins, micro- and macronutrients will also cause negative consequences after some time. But just enough for a few days to give up water, so that the body made it clear: this is a disaster.We begin to lose our “wet” reserves at the first manifestations of thirst. It is enough to lose only 5% of the liquid, so that difficulties arise with swallowing syndrome, hallucinations and fainting begin, and hearing and vision are disturbed. If the water balance is not restored in time, a lethal outcome is possible.
Functions of water in the body:
- removes toxins, waste, salts and waste products;
- transports beneficial substances to all organs;
- promotes muscle contraction;
- plays the role of lubricant for the joints;
- regulates blood formation, blood pressure;
- activates the brain;
- "launches" metabolic processes;
- maintains a stable body temperature;
- protects organs from damage;
- adds strength and energy.
The benefits to humans
Water is the main component of all tissues in the human body.
In each organ, the concentration of fluid is different. The largest moisture reserves are concentrated in the ocular body (which is almost 99% water), and the lowest - in tooth enamel (only 0.2%). There is also a high concentration of water in the brain (almost 70 percent), so without the fluid of a robot an organ would have become impossible.
Dihydrogen monoxide is all around us. And we ourselves are also a kind of water. After all, more than half of the human body is H2O, and for absolutely all the biochemical processes within us, water is also needed. So, how does hydrogen oxide affect the functioning of the body?
The role of water:
- Proper digestion.
Proper water balance in the body contributes to normal digestion. Water helps to quickly and easily get rid of waste products, reduces the burden on the kidneys and liver during the cleansing of the body, and prevents the occurrence of constipation.
- Cardiovascular health.
There is a relationship between the amount of drinking water consumed and the risk of developing coronary heart disease. The risk of cardiological diseases is much lower in those who prefer clean drinking water, instead of sweet juices and soda.
- Muscle strength.
Sweating in the gym causes the muscles to lose moisture, and when it is not enough, the muscles get tired faster. Therefore, in order to maintain energy during long workouts, it is important to restore fluid stores in the body.
- Freshness of the skin.
Acne and inflammation on the skin are often caused by toxins. Quickly cleanse the body will help additional consumption of water. Also, a proper moisture balance protects the skin from premature aging, drying out and wrinkles.
- Cancer prevention.
Recent studies have allowed scientists to put forward an interesting theory. In their opinion, the development of bladder cancer by and large depends on the water level in the body: the higher the moisture indicator in the body, the lower the risk of getting sick. Scientists explain this theory by the fact that frequent urination allows faster (and in greater quantities) to remove carcinogens from the body, preventing their accumulation in the bladder. According to the same principle, the researchers believe, you can protect yourself from breast and intestinal cancer.
- Benefits for the kidneys.
The kidneys remove toxins and help control fluid balance in the body and blood pressure. The only way to maintain proper organ function is to consume enough fluid.
- Protection for cartilage and joints.
Moisture allows the cartilage around the joints to remain supple and hydrated, and for the joints themselves water serves as a kind of lubricant. By the way, periarticular cartilage is almost 85 percent composed of dihydrogen monoxide, so it is so important to maintain a healthy level of moisture.
- Significance for the brain.
Dehydration has an extremely negative effect on brain tissue, which without moisture begins to dry out. Without maintaining proper water balance, it is more difficult for him to perform his functions, especially during examinations or critical tasks.
- From respiratory viral infection.
The experience conducted with the participation of 400 people showed: in order to protect yourself from infections and respiratory diseases during the epidemic, it is enough to regularly gargle with normal clean water. People who participated in the experiment were less likely to get sick, and the ailment proceeded more easily, without complications.
- Stamina and alertness under control.
Dehydration always causes weakness and fatigue. Noticed that they began to get tired more often, and the forces leave you? Calculate how much water you drink per day. Perhaps the cause of fatigue is a lack of fluid in the body. And if you need to remain vigilant for a long time, you should make sure that you always have a bottle of still water at hand. Dehydration leads to a deterioration in concentration, and also reduces concentration, impairs motor skills and memory.
- Remedy for depression.
Another interesting study showed: mood directly depends on the amount of water in the body. The higher the percentage of dehydration, the worse the mood. It is also interesting that, according to researchers, water is also a tool against depression. After taking a warm shower, the body activates the production of oxytocin, a hormone that causes relaxation.
- This healing surf noise ...
The saying that you can always look at fire and water is known to many. True, one should not only look at water, but also listen to its sounds, which, according to researchers, have a therapeutic effect. Unpleasant noises of public transport, construction tools and screams lead to an increase in blood pressure, accelerate the pulse, causing the release of the stress hormone. And the sounds of water, by contrast, are among the most pleasant for humans. They are able to calm and beneficially affect the whole body.
There is also an opinion that people living on the coast have better health, and aqua aerobics do more good, in particular for the cardiovascular system, than classes on land.
In addition, water in the form of steam benefits the heart. It is enough to spend 15 minutes in the sauna for a month, so that the heart begins to better pump blood.
How much moisture does a person need?
How much water should I drink daily? There is no single answer to this seemingly simple question. Over the years, scientists conducted a lot of research, and each time they voiced different numbers. In fact, there is no single answer. It all depends on the age, gender, environment and type of human activity. For example, people living on the coast get extra moisture from the air, so they can afford to drink a little less liquid than others. But residents of hot countries, on the contrary, should monitor their water balance as closely as possible, as they are more prone to dehydration.
Drinking less fluid than the body requires leads to serious disruptions in the functioning of systems and organs. But excessive watering is no less dangerous to health. So to whom and how much water is laid?
Under normal circumstances, the amount of moisture in the body controls thirst and urination. And this is a normal water cycle. Meanwhile, do not forget that thirst can be a sign of certain diseases, in particular diabetes. Therefore, if the desire to drink does not disappear for a long time, it is better to consult a doctor without delay.
In 2010, at their next congress, nutritionists in Europe proposed the following to be considered the minimum standards for water consumption:
- 2 l - for men;
- 1.6 L - for women.
But these are only approximate figures that do not take into account a person’s lifestyle and physical activity.
In addition, there is a formula by which a more accurate daily norm can be calculated based on body weight. To do this, it is enough to know that per 1 kg of weight should account for 30 g of water daily.
Who is more?
However, there are situations when the body needs increased fluid intake:
- constipation (increasing fluid intake will help to cope with the problem);
- cancer (people who drink a lot of water are less likely to have bladder and bowel cancer);
- kidney stones (proper watering serves as a prevention of the disease).
The body's need for water increases during breastfeeding and in old age.
Hot weather, excessive sweating, indigestion, accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea, are also reasons to add a few more glasses of water to your normal daily intake.
It is worthwhile to take care of an extra bottle of drinking water for people who consume excessively salt. Probably everyone knows that after too salty foods you always feel thirsty. Thus, the body signals the need for additional water, since excess salt distorts the composition of the blood.
The daily rate of fluid intake also depends on weather conditions. Outside the window there is high temperature and low humidity? These are ideal conditions for overheating the body. To protect against "boiling", the body begins to intensively cover with sweat. Therefore, in order to avoid dehydration, it is important to regularly restore the body's moisture reserves.
Signs of dehydration
Thirst and dark urine with a pungent odor are clear signs of dehydration.
Other symptoms include:
- dizziness, fainting;
- increase in body temperature;
- muscle cramps;
- joint pain
- confusion of consciousness;
- increase in cholesterol;
- hearing and vision impairment;
- dry mouth.
But the most serious consequence of moisture deficiency is blood thickening. In such a consistency, it is not capable of effectively performing its functions: organs lack oxygen, and metabolic products do not leave the body, poisoning it. All the mucous membranes suffer from a lack of fluid in the body. Not getting the required amount of moisture, they dry out and begin to crack. Dry skin, acne, brittle hair, plaque on the tongue, bad breath, nervousness, distraction and migraines are also external signs of dehydration.
Interestingly, people from extreme age groups, that is, children and the elderly, are more at risk of dehydration. If the baby began to breathe faster, became sleepy and lethargic, and the number of wet diapers per day decreased significantly, this can serve as a signal of dehydration. Lack of moisture in the elderly usually causes confusion.
It is important to remember that the cause of rapid dehydration can be diarrhea, vomiting, and profuse sweating during fever. According to studies, the loss of about one and a half percent moisture causes a deterioration in mood, a decrease in concentration and headaches. And dehydration by 2-3 percent negatively affects the functioning of the brain.
In addition, dehydration can cause diseases such as:
- gastritis and constipation;
Dangerous dihydrogen monoxide
By and large, excessive use of water does not become a danger to a healthy body. A person whose kidneys are functioning properly is able to quickly get rid of excess moisture. However, stable hyperhydration (excessive saturation of the body with water) is dangerous by leaching of beneficial salts. In particular, some athletes (especially marathon runners) who drink too much water are severely deficient in sodium. But for people with sick kidneys or heart problems, excess moisture in the body can become a serious problem - cause swelling, swollen ankles.
The body can “tell” about the excess of H2O by excess weight, edema, excessive sweating and high blood pressure. In especially severe cases, disturbances in the work of the heart and lungs are possible.
Proper water balance is an important aspect for human health and life. For this reason, nature has endowed us with “mechanisms” for regulating the moisture level in the body. When the "indicator" falls below acceptable, we feel thirsty.
What determines the percentage of H2O in the body
The percentage of moisture in the body is an individual indicator for each person.
The amount of fluid is affected by gender, age, place of residence, lifestyle and body structure. By the way, in obese, the percentage of fluid in the body is higher than in people with normal or underweight.
But not only physiology determines the water percentage of the body. The nature of nutrition also affects this indicator. Alcohol, coffee, smoking, and large amounts of meat accelerate moisture removal. Water soda can also cause water imbalance, which contain chemicals that accelerate dehydration. This knowledge is important to consider when drawing up an individual water consumption program. But ordinary table salt will help retain moisture in the body. With this in mind, it is easy to prevent dehydration in hot weather or after eating disorders.
A “cocktail” of 1.5 g of salt, 2.5 g of vitamin C and 5 g of glucose diluted in half a liter of water will help prevent moisture loss. This recipe is actively used by travelers in conditions of lack of drinking fluid.
Only pure water, without harmful impurities, is considered useful for humans. It is important to avoid the so-called “heavy” substance, which is the H2O isotope. Its main difference is in the structure of the molecule, and this subsequently complicates the course of all biochemical processes in the body. Many researchers recommend giving preference to the "light" version of water - melt. It is believed that this fluid is able to beneficially affect the cardiovascular system, metabolic processes and tissue regeneration.
Also, the process of water digestibility directly depends on the state of health (worsens with dehydration and in old age). In especially severe cases, the body's water balance is restored using a physiological or Ringer-Locke solution administered intravenously.
Water will save you from extra pounds
Lovers of all kinds of diets for weight loss are most likely to know: water helps fight excessive appetite. Hunger broke out? It’s easy to deceive the body. To do this, just drink a glass of warm water, which the body will perceive as food.
In addition, according to studies, 500 ml of fluid can temporarily (over 90 minutes) accelerate metabolism by 25-30 percent. And drunk 2 liters of water per day, according to scientists, increase energy consumption by about 96 calories. In this case, it is better to give preference to cold water - the body spend additional calories to warm the liquid.
Other studies have shown that a glass of water drunk about half an hour before a meal can also reduce calories. This "trick" works especially well in the elderly. And dieters just need to drink 2 glasses of water before eating to lose 44 percent more weight over 12 weeks.
But on this, the effect of water on body weight is limited. H2O deficiency, on the contrary, can cause obesity. And the thing is that a thirsty organism, being in a state of stress, sends signals to the brain ... about hunger. A person begins to eat, and excess calories are deposited in the form of subcutaneous fat.
To drink or not to drink - that’s the question ...
The first, second and compote - this lunch set is known to everyone since kindergarten. In this diet, everything would seem to be correct, except for the order of reception of products. Usually we leave compote, tea or water at the end of the meal. And this is the whole mistake. If the liquid drunk before a meal normalizes physiological processes in the body and helps lower blood cholesterol, then all drinks after a meal are only harmful. Doctors strongly oppose this practice, since water dilutes the gastric juice, thereby slowing down the digestion process. Therefore, any drink should be consumed no earlier than one and a half to two hours after eating. But eating dry food is also not worth it.Sandwiches, pastries and other dry foods are best served with drinks or clean water.
But you can not only drink water ...
The recommendation of many nutritionists is to consume at least 8 glasses of fluid per day. For some, this may seem too complicated. But who said that the whole norm should be drunk? Part of it can be ... eaten.
Sources of approximately 20% of the water in the normal diet are fruits and vegetables. Many of them are more than 90 percent liquid, such as watermelon. But pears contain about 84% moisture; in bananas there is no more than 74% water. But all fruits are also excellent sources of fiber. This means that when you consume a minimum of calories, it is easy to achieve a feeling of fullness. The same can be said about vegetables.
Meat and fish, although they do not contain as much water as plant foods, can still serve as a source of H2O. For example, flounder is 79% water, chicken - 69%, and ground beef contains 63% moisture. As for eggs, they are also water - 75 percent. A relatively high content of dihydrogen monoxide is found in yoghurts (approximately 89%), milk (87%) and ice cream (61%). But in hard cheeses you should not look for more than 40% moisture.
15 most “water” products:
- cucumber (water content - 96.7%);
- leaf lettuce (96.6%);
- celery (95.4%);
- radish (95.3%);
- tomatoes (94.5%);
- green pepper (93.9%) (in red and yellow varieties, the water content is 92%);
- cauliflower (92.1%)
- watermelon (91.5%);
- spinach (91.4%);
- carom (91.4%);
- strawberries (91%);
- broccoli (90.7%);
- grapefruit (90.5%);
- young carrots (90.4%);
- melon (90.2%).
Interesting facts about water:
- According to UN forecasts, 2/3 of the world's population will face water shortages by 2025.
- Drinking too much dihydrogen monoxide can cause death (so-called water intoxication).
- Water is the most common substance on the planet.
- If all world H2O stocks fit in a 4-liter jug, the amount of liquid suitable for human use would equal 1 tablespoon.
- Under some conditions, hot water can freeze faster than cold water (Mpemba effect).
- Every day a person exhales a little more than a glass of water.
- When freezing, water expands by 9%.
- The highest percentage of Н2О is in cucumbers and in the body of jellyfish (about 95%).
- Hydrogen oxide in liquid form reflects 5% of the sun's rays, while snow - more than 85%.
- Sea water freezes at a temperature of about minus 2 degrees Celsius.
- If the Earth's surface were absolutely flat, the World Ocean would rise 3 km above it.
- Water reserves in the mantle of our planet are 10 times higher than the reserves of the oceans.
- An eighth of the land would be under water if all the glaciers had melted.
And this, perhaps, is far from everything that water can surprise us with. The people of science will probably have to make amazing discoveries about this extraordinary substance. In the meantime, humanity, like hundreds of years ago, enjoys the look of sea waves and drops of morning dew and, with a sinking heart, trembles before the water element during floods and thunderstorms, admiring the beauty and power of water.